SpringBoot 实战:如何优雅的处理异常

前段时间写了一篇关于实现统一响应信息的博文,根据文中实战操作,能够解决正常响应的一致性,但想要实现优雅响应,还需要优雅的处理异常响应,所以有了这篇内容。

作为后台服务,能够正确的处理程序抛出的异常,并返回友好的异常信息是非常重要的,毕竟我们大部分代码都是为了 处理异常情况。而且,统一的异常响应,有助于客户端理解服务端响应,并作出正确处理,而且能够提升接口的服务质量。

SpringBoot提供了异常的响应,可以通过/error请求查看效果:

SpringBoot错误页面

这是从浏览器打开的场景,也就是请求头不包括content-type: applicaton/json,大白板一个,和友好完全不搭边。

SpringBoot错误响应

这是请求头包括content-type: applicaton/json时的响应,格式还行,但是我们还需要加工一下,实现自定义的异常码和异常信息。

本文主要是针对RESTful请求的统一响应,想要实现的功能包括:

  1. 自动封装异常,返回统一响应
  2. 异常信息国际化

定义异常响应类

当程序发送错误时,不应该将晦涩的堆栈报告信息返回给API客户端,从某种意义将,这是一种不礼貌的和不负责任的行为。

我们在SpringBoot 实战:一招实现结果的优雅响应中,定义了一个响应类,为什么还要再定义一个异常响应类呢?其实是为了语义明确且职责单一。类图如下:

定义异常响应类

具体代码如下:

基础类BaseResponse

@Data
public abstract class BaseResponse {
    private Integer code;
    private String desc;
    private Date timestamp = new Date();
    private String path;

    public BaseResponse() {
    }

    public BaseResponse(final Integer code, final String desc) {
        this.code = code;
        this.desc = desc;
    }

    public BaseResponse(final Integer code, final String desc, final String path) {
        this.code = code;
        this.desc = desc;
        this.path = path;
    }
}

异常类ErrorResponse

@EqualsAndHashCode(callSuper = true)
@Data
public class ErrorResponse extends BaseResponse {
    public ErrorResponse(final Integer code, final String desc) {
        super(code, desc);
    }

    public ErrorResponse(final Integer code, final String desc, final WebRequest request) {
        super(code, desc, extractRequestURI(request));
    }

    public ErrorResponse(final HttpStatus status, final Exception e) {
        super(status.value(), status.getReasonPhrase() + ": " + e.getMessage());
    }

    public ErrorResponse(final HttpStatus status, final Exception e, final WebRequest request) {
        super(status.value(), status.getReasonPhrase() + ": " + e.getMessage(), extractRequestURI(request));
    }

    private static String extractRequestURI(WebRequest request) {
        final String requestURI;
        if (request instanceof ServletWebRequest) {
            ServletWebRequest servletWebRequest = (ServletWebRequest) request;
            requestURI = servletWebRequest.getRequest().getRequestURI();
        } else {
            requestURI = request.getDescription(false);
        }
        return requestURI;
    }
}

定义异常枚举类

为了能够规范响应码和响应信息,我们可以定义一个枚举类。

定义异常枚举类

枚举接口ResponseEnum

public interface ResponseEnum {
    Integer getCode();

    String getMessage();

    default String getLocaleMessage() {
        return getLocaleMessage(null);
    }

    String getLocaleMessage(Object[] args);
}

枚举类CommonResponseEnum

public enum CommonResponseEnum implements ResponseEnum {
    BAD_REQUEST(HttpStatus.BAD_REQUEST.value(), "Bad Request"),
    NOT_FOUND(HttpStatus.NOT_FOUND.value(), "Not Found"),
    METHOD_NOT_ALLOWED(HttpStatus.METHOD_NOT_ALLOWED.value(), "Method Not Allowed"),
    NOT_ACCEPTABLE(HttpStatus.NOT_ACCEPTABLE.value(), "Not Acceptable"),
    REQUEST_TIMEOUT(HttpStatus.REQUEST_TIMEOUT.value(), "Request Timeout"),
    UNSUPPORTED_MEDIA_TYPE(HttpStatus.UNSUPPORTED_MEDIA_TYPE.value(), "Unsupported Media Type"),
    INTERNAL_SERVER_ERROR(HttpStatus.INTERNAL_SERVER_ERROR.value(), "Server Error"),
    SERVICE_UNAVAILABLE(HttpStatus.SERVICE_UNAVAILABLE.value(), "Service Unavailable"),
    ILLEGAL_ARGUMENT(4000, "Illegal Argument"),
    DATA_NOT_FOUND(4004, "Data Not Found"),
    USER_NOT_FOUND(4104, "User Not Found"),
    MENU_NOT_FOUND(4204, "Menu Not Found"),
    INTERNAL_ERROR(9999, "Server Error"),
    ;

    private final Integer code;
    private final String message;
    private MessageSource messageSource;

    CommonResponseEnum(final Integer code, final String message) {
        this.code = code;
        this.message = message;
    }

    @Override
    public Integer getCode() {
        return code;
    }

    @Override
    public String getMessage() {
        return message;
    }

    @Override
    public String getLocaleMessage(Object[] args) {
        return messageSource.getMessage("response.error." + code, args, message, LocaleContextHolder.getLocale());
    }

    public void setMessageSource(final MessageSource messageSource) {
        this.messageSource = messageSource;
    }

    @Component
    public static class ReportTypeServiceInjector {
        private final MessageSource messageSource;

        public ReportTypeServiceInjector(final MessageSource messageSource) {
            this.messageSource = messageSource;
        }

        @PostConstruct
        public void postConstruct() {
            for (final CommonResponseEnum anEnum : CommonResponseEnum.values()) {
                anEnum.setMessageSource(messageSource);
            }
        }
    }
}

需要注意的是,我们在异常枚举类中定义了ReportTypeServiceInjector类,这个类的作用是为枚举类注入MessageSource对象,是为了实现异常信息的国际化。这部分功能Spring已经封装好了,我们只需要在resources目录中定义一组messages.properties文件就可以了,比如:

message.properties定义默认描述:

response.error.4000=[DEFAULT] Illegal Arguments
response.error.4004=[DEFAULT] Not Found

messages_zh_CN.properties定义中文描述:

response.error.4004=对应数据未找到
response.error.9999=系统异常,请求参数: {0}

messages_en_US.properties定义英文描述:

response.error.4004=Not Found

自定义异常类

Java和Spring中提供了很多可用的异常类,可以满足大部分场景,但是有时候我们希望异常类可以携带更多信息,所以还是需要自定义异常类:

  • 可以携带我们想要的信息;
  • 有更加明确语义;
  • 附带效果,可以知道这是手动抛出的业务异常。

上代码:

@Data
@EqualsAndHashCode(callSuper = true)
public class CodeBaseException extends RuntimeException {
    private final ResponseEnum anEnum;
    private final Object[] args;// 打印参数
    private final String message;// 异常信息
    private final Throwable cause;// 异常栈

    public CodeBaseException(final ResponseEnum anEnum) {
        this(anEnum, null, anEnum.getMessage(), null);
    }

    public CodeBaseException(final ResponseEnum anEnum, final String message) {
        this(anEnum, null, message, null);
    }

    public CodeBaseException(final ResponseEnum anEnum, final Object[] args, final String message) {
        this(anEnum, args, message, null);
    }

    public CodeBaseException(final ResponseEnum anEnum, final Object[] args, final String message, final Throwable cause) {
        this.anEnum = anEnum;
        this.args = args;
        this.message = message;
        this.cause = cause;
    }
}

自定义异常信息处理类

前期准备工作完成,接下来定义异常信息处理类。

Spring自带的异常信息处理类往往不能满足我们实际的业务需求,这就需要我们定义符合具体情况的异常信息处理类,在自定义异常信息处理类中,我们可以封装更为详细的异常报告。我们可以扩展Spring提供的ResponseEntityExceptionHandler类定义自己的异常信息处理类,站在巨人的肩膀上,快速封装自己需要的类。

通过源码可以看到,ResponseEntityExceptionHandler类的核心方法是public final ResponseEntity<Object> handleException(Exception ex, WebRequest request),所有的异常都在这个方法中根据类型进行处理,我们只需要实现具体的处理方法即可:

@RestControllerAdvice
@Slf4j
public class UnifiedExceptionHandlerV2 extends ResponseEntityExceptionHandler {
    private static final String ENV_PROD = "prod";
    private final MessageSource messageSource;
    private final Boolean isProd;

    public UnifiedExceptionHandlerV2(@Value("${spring.profiles.active:dev}") final String activeProfile, final MessageSource messageSource) {
        this.messageSource = messageSource;
        this.isProd = new HashSet<>(Arrays.asList(activeProfile.split(","))).contains(ENV_PROD);
    }

    @Override
    protected ResponseEntity<Object> handleExceptionInternal(final Exception e, final Object body, final HttpHeaders headers, final HttpStatus status, final WebRequest request) {
        log.info("请求异常:" + e.getMessage(), e);
        if (HttpStatus.INTERNAL_SERVER_ERROR.equals(status)) {
            request.setAttribute(WebUtils.ERROR_EXCEPTION_ATTRIBUTE, e, WebRequest.SCOPE_REQUEST);
        }
        return new ResponseEntity<>(new ErrorResponse(status, e), headers, HttpStatus.OK);
    }

    @Override
    protected ResponseEntity<Object> handleBindException(final BindException ex, final HttpHeaders headers, final HttpStatus status, final WebRequest request) {
        log.info("参数绑定异常", ex);
        final ErrorResponse response = wrapperBindingResult(status, ex.getBindingResult());
        return new ResponseEntity<>(response, headers, HttpStatus.OK);
    }

    @Override
    protected ResponseEntity<Object> handleMethodArgumentNotValid(final MethodArgumentNotValidException ex, final HttpHeaders headers, final HttpStatus status, final WebRequest request) {
        log.info("参数校验异常", ex);
        final ErrorResponse response = wrapperBindingResult(status, ex.getBindingResult());
        return new ResponseEntity<>(response, headers, HttpStatus.OK);
    }

    @ExceptionHandler(value = CodeBaseException.class)
    @ResponseBody
    public ErrorResponse handleBusinessException(CodeBaseException e) {
        log.error("业务异常:" + e.getMessage(), e);
        final ResponseEnum anEnum = e.getAnEnum();
        return new ErrorResponse(anEnum.getCode(), anEnum.getLocaleMessage(e.getArgs()));
    }

    @ExceptionHandler(value = Exception.class)
    @ResponseBody
    public ErrorResponse handleExceptionInternal(Exception e) {
        log.error("未捕捉异常:" + e.getMessage(), e);
        final Integer code = INTERNAL_SERVER_ERROR.getCode();
        return new ErrorResponse(code, getLocaleMessage(code, e.getMessage()));
    }


    /**
     * 包装绑定异常结果
     *
     * @param status        HTTP状态码
     * @param bindingResult 参数校验结果
     * @return 异常对象
     */
    private ErrorResponse wrapperBindingResult(HttpStatus status, BindingResult bindingResult) {
        final List<String> errorDesc = new ArrayList<>();
        for (ObjectError error : bindingResult.getAllErrors()) {
            final StringBuilder msg = new StringBuilder();
            if (error instanceof FieldError) {
                msg.append(((FieldError) error).getField()).append(": ");
            }
            msg.append(error.getDefaultMessage() == null ? "" : error.getDefaultMessage());
            errorDesc.add(msg.toString());
        }
        final String desc = isProd ? getLocaleMessage(status.value(), status.getReasonPhrase()) : String.join(", ", errorDesc);
        return new ErrorResponse(status.value(), desc);
    }

    private String getLocaleMessage(Integer code, String defaultMsg) {
        try {
            return messageSource.getMessage("" + code, null, defaultMsg, LocaleContextHolder.getLocale());
        } catch (Throwable t) {
            log.warn("本地化异常消息发生异常: {}", code);
            return defaultMsg;
        }
    }
}

如果感觉Spring的ResponseEntityExceptionHandler类不够灵活,也可以完全自定义异常处理类:

@RestControllerAdvice
@Slf4j
public class UnifiedExceptionHandler {
    private static final String ENV_PROD = "prod";
    private final MessageSource messageSource;
    private final Boolean isProd;

    public UnifiedExceptionHandler(@Value("${spring.profiles.active:dev}") final String activeProfile, final MessageSource messageSource) {
        this.messageSource = messageSource;
        this.isProd = new HashSet<>(Arrays.asList(activeProfile.split(","))).contains(ENV_PROD);
    }

    @ExceptionHandler({
            MissingServletRequestParameterException.class,// 缺少servlet请求参数异常处理方法
            ServletRequestBindingException.class,// servlet请求绑定异常
            TypeMismatchException.class,// 类型不匹配
            HttpMessageNotReadableException.class,// 消息无法检索
            MissingServletRequestPartException.class// 缺少servlet请求部分

    })
    public ErrorResponse badRequestException(Exception e, WebRequest request) {
        log.info(e.getMessage(), e);
        return new ErrorResponse(BAD_REQUEST.getCode(), e.getMessage(), request);
    }

    @ExceptionHandler({
            NoHandlerFoundException.class// 没有发现处理程序异常
    })
    public ErrorResponse noHandlerFoundException(Exception e, WebRequest request) {
        log.info(e.getMessage(), e);
        return new ErrorResponse(NOT_FOUND.getCode(), e.getMessage(), request);
    }

    @ExceptionHandler({
            HttpRequestMethodNotSupportedException.class// 不支持的HTTP请求方法异常信息处理方法
    })
    public ErrorResponse httpRequestMethodNotSupportedException(Exception e, WebRequest request) {
        log.info(e.getMessage(), e);
        return new ErrorResponse(METHOD_NOT_ALLOWED.getCode(), e.getMessage(), request);
    }

    @ExceptionHandler({
            HttpMediaTypeNotAcceptableException.class// 不接受的HTTP媒体类型异常处方法
    })
    public ErrorResponse httpMediaTypeNotAcceptableException(Exception e, WebRequest request) {
        log.info(e.getMessage(), e);
        return new ErrorResponse(NOT_ACCEPTABLE.getCode(), e.getMessage(), request);
    }

    @ExceptionHandler({
            HttpMediaTypeNotSupportedException.class// 不支持的HTTP媒体类型异常处理方法
    })
    public ErrorResponse httpMediaTypeNotSupportedException(Exception e, WebRequest request) {
        log.info(e.getMessage(), e);
        return new ErrorResponse(UNSUPPORTED_MEDIA_TYPE.getCode(), e.getMessage(), request);
    }

    @ExceptionHandler({
            AsyncRequestTimeoutException.class// 异步请求超时异常
    })
    public ErrorResponse asyncRequestTimeoutException(Exception e, WebRequest request) {
        log.info(e.getMessage(), e);
        return new ErrorResponse(SERVICE_UNAVAILABLE.getCode(), e.getMessage(), request);
    }

    @ExceptionHandler({
            MissingPathVariableException.class,// 请求路径参数缺失异常处方法
            HttpMessageNotWritableException.class,// HTTP消息不可写
            ConversionNotSupportedException.class,// 不支持转换
    })
    public ErrorResponse handleServletException(Exception e, WebRequest request) {
        log.error(e.getMessage(), e);
        return new ErrorResponse(INTERNAL_SERVER_ERROR.getCode(), e.getMessage(), request);
    }

    @ExceptionHandler({
            BindException.class// 参数绑定异常
    })
    @ResponseBody
    public ErrorResponse handleBindException(BindException e, WebRequest request) {
        log.error("参数绑定异常", e);
        return wrapperBindingResult(e.getBindingResult(), request);
    }

    /**
     * 参数校验异常,将校验失败的所有异常组合成一条错误信息
     */
    @ExceptionHandler({
            MethodArgumentNotValidException.class// 方法参数无效
    })
    @ResponseBody
    public ErrorResponse handleValidException(MethodArgumentNotValidException e, WebRequest request) {
        log.error("参数校验异常", e);
        return wrapperBindingResult(e.getBindingResult(), request);
    }

    /**
     * 包装绑定异常结果
     */
    private ErrorResponse wrapperBindingResult(BindingResult bindingResult, WebRequest request) {
        final List<String> errorDesc = new ArrayList<>();
        for (ObjectError error : bindingResult.getAllErrors()) {
            final StringBuilder msg = new StringBuilder();
            if (error instanceof FieldError) {
                msg.append(((FieldError) error).getField()).append(": ");
            }
            msg.append(error.getDefaultMessage() == null ? "" : error.getDefaultMessage());
            errorDesc.add(msg.toString());
        }
        final String desc = isProd ? getLocaleMessage(BAD_REQUEST.getCode(), "") : String.join(", ", errorDesc);
        return new ErrorResponse(BAD_REQUEST.getCode(), desc, request);
    }

    /**
     * 业务异常
     */
    @ExceptionHandler(value = CodeBaseException.class)
    @ResponseBody
    public ErrorResponse handleBusinessException(CodeBaseException e, WebRequest request) {
        log.error("业务异常:" + e.getMessage(), e);
        final ResponseEnum anEnum = e.getAnEnum();
        return new ErrorResponse(anEnum.getCode(), anEnum.getLocaleMessage(e.getArgs()), request);
    }

    /**
     * 未定义异常
     */
    @ExceptionHandler(value = Exception.class)
    @ResponseBody
    public ErrorResponse handleExceptionInternal(Exception e, WebRequest request) {
        log.error("未捕捉异常:" + e.getMessage(), e);
        final Integer code = INTERNAL_SERVER_ERROR.getCode();
        return new ErrorResponse(code, getLocaleMessage(code, e.getMessage()), request);
    }

    private String getLocaleMessage(Integer code, String defaultMsg) {
        try {
            return messageSource.getMessage("" + code, null, defaultMsg, LocaleContextHolder.getLocale());
        } catch (Throwable t) {
            log.warn("本地化异常消息发生异常: {}", code);
            return defaultMsg;
        }
    }
}

从上面两个类可以看出,比较核心的是这么几个注解:

  • @ExceptionHandle:负责处理controller标注的类中抛出的异常的注解
  • @RestControllerAdvice:能够将@ExceptionHandler标注的方法集中到一个地方进行处理的注解,这个注解是复合注解,实现了@ControllerAdvice@ResponseBody的功能。

借用谭朝红博文中的图片(蓝色箭头表示正常的请求和响应,红色箭头表示发生异常的请求和响应):

异常信息处理类

写个Demo测试一下

接下来我们写个demo测试一下是否能够实现异常的优雅响应:

@RestController
@RequestMapping("index")
@Slf4j
public class IndexController {
    private final IndexService indexService;

    public IndexController(final IndexService indexService) {
        this.indexService = indexService;
    }

    @GetMapping("hello1")
    public Response<String> hello1() {
        Response<String> response = new Response<>();
        try {
            response.setCode(200);
            response.setDesc("请求成功");
            response.setData(indexService.hello());
        } catch (Exception e) {
            log.error("hello1方法请求异常", e);
            response.setCode(500);
            response.setDesc("请求异常:" + e.getMessage());
        } finally {
            log.info("执行controller的finally结构");
        }
        return response;
    }

    @GetMapping("hello2")
    public Response<String> hello2(@RequestParam("ex") String ex) {
        switch (ex) {
            case "ex1":
                throw new CodeBaseException(CommonResponseEnum.USER_NOT_FOUND, "用户信息不存在");
            case "ex2":
                throw new CodeBaseException(CommonResponseEnum.MENU_NOT_FOUND, "菜单信息不存在");
            case "ex3":
                throw new CodeBaseException(CommonResponseEnum.ILLEGAL_ARGUMENT, "请求参数异常");
            case "ex4":
                throw new CodeBaseException(CommonResponseEnum.DATA_NOT_FOUND, "数据不存在");
        }
        throw new CodeBaseException(INTERNAL_ERROR, new Object[]{ex}, "请求异常", new RuntimeException("运行时异常信息"));
    }
}

启动服务之后,传入不同参数获取不同的异常信息:

// 请求 /index/hello2?ex=ex1
{
    "code": 4104,
    "desc": "User Not Found",
    "timestamp": "2020-10-10T05:58:39.433+00:00",
    "path": "/index/hello2"
}

// 请求 /index/hello2?ex=ex2
{
    "code": 4204,
    "desc": "Menu Not Found",
    "timestamp": "2020-10-10T06:00:34.141+00:00",
    "path": "/index/hello2"
}

// 请求 /index/hello2?ex=ex3
{
    "code": 4000,
    "desc": "[DEFAULT] Illegal Arguments",
    "timestamp": "2020-10-10T06:00:44.233+00:00",
    "path": "/index/hello2"
}

// 请求 /index/hello2?ex=ex4
{
    "code": 4004,
    "desc": "对应数据未找到",
    "timestamp": "2020-10-10T06:00:54.178+00:00",
    "path": "/index/hello2"
}

附上文中的代码:https://github.com/howardliu-cn/effective-spring/tree/main/spring-exception-handler,收工。


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